The lemon is rounded and slightly elongated, it belongs to the family of citrus fruit and therefore it shares many of the characteristics of other species of citruses, as for instance the thick skin. The pulp is pale yellow, juicy and with an acid flavour; it is divided in gores. The skin is yellow and specially bright when it is ripen.
It is used fresh for cooking, and its juice is used in the industry for processing foodstuffs. For the pharmaceutical industry it is the raw material for many medicine manufactures, and at home it is used in several homemade remedies
Its characteristics are very similar to the other bitter fruits, because both their skin and pulp are similar, although the colour and flavour may be totally opposed, specially if we compare it with the most representative fruit of the family, the orange.
The lemon is a round, slightly elongated fruit, it has a strong and resistant skin, with an intense bright yellow colour when it is totaly ripe, giving off a special aroma when it is cut. The pulp is pale yellow, juicy and acid, divided in gores.
It is only consumed in fresh in the gastronomy field, its juice is used as seasoning for soups, drinks, salads, fish dishes and hundreds of confectionery products. In cooking, the lemon shares its importance with the Mexican limes. The lime comes from Malaysia and its culture is more restricted to the humid and warm tropical and subtropical areas, since it is very sensible to cold weather. The lime is a smaller fruit, it is consumed green and it is used in countries like France. Limes are divided in two groups: acid limes, with a marketing interest, and sweet limes. The acid limes are on their turn subdivided in two groups: limes " Tahití ", " Persa’ or " Bearss" from the group Citrus latifolia, which are larger; and limes ’Key" or "Mejicana’ from the group Citrus aurantifolia, which are smaller. The limes of sweet pulp are Citrus limettioides and the most cultivated variety is the so-called Dulce de la India. Since they are not acid, they do not replace lemons.
At an industrial level, the lemon is used for the extraction of the pulp’s juice and essential oils. The skin is also used as cattle food, and for the extraction of pectins for the industry.
Lemons are also intended for the pharmaceutical industry, due to their high vitamins content: A, B, P, K and mainly C, for the manufacture of several medicines.
It has a healing purpose not only through medicines, but also at a homemade level we can use it as astringent, digestive tonic and other useful purposes.
For the hardware industry, it is also a very valuable raw material in the manufacture of stain removers, detergents, perfumes made of oil extracted from the skin, etc.
The production period goes from April to July in the N Hemisphere, although thanks to the wide range of different varieties with different maturation time we have lemons uninterruptedly throughout the year.