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Pistachio nut, Pistachia vera / Anacardiaceae
They are classified according to their origin; their colour and size differentiates them. The main types of pistachio are the pistachio of Sicily, which is green, the smaller Tunis and the Pistachio of Levante, yellow and therefore less appreciated commercially.

The main types found in the market are the Noble or Sicily pistachio, with a green and very appreciated almond; Tunis, smaller but equally appreciated, and the Levante, with a yellow edible part and less accepted because of its flavour.

Usually, the pistachio varieties are classified according to their place of origin or culture. Each country has its own selections, whose main differences are the colour, flavour, size, period of harvesting and qualities.

Some of the most frequent cultivars in Iran, the main producing country, are Mirhavy, Momtaz, Owhadi, Safeed, Wahedi, Sefideh-Montaz, Imperiale de Dameghan, Ravzine, Bademi and many others as female cultivars. As masculine cultivars they use the native ones coming from the seed.

The most important cultivars in Syria are Achouri, Batouri, Alemi, and Lazouardi. In Turkey "Uzun", "kirmizi", " Halebí, "Abiad miwahi", " the Jalalé, " Aintaby" and " Ayimi. In Turkestan "Kouchka", " Akart-Tachecmé " and " Chor-Tchéchimé ".

A selection of plants coming from seeds in the Kerman area (Iran), was introduced in the United States in 1957 for its commercial use, being the female cultivar Kerman the most extended in California and very appreciated anywhere in the world; the male cultivar standard is Peter. Other varieties cultivated in the U.S.A. are Joley, Red Aleppo, Bronte, Lassen, Trabonella and Aleppo.

In Greece, the pistachio nut varieties Lárnaca, Aegina and Pontikis are produced.

In the Banco de Germoplasma of the IRTA (Tarragona, Spain) the female cultivars Aegina, Mateur, and Lárnaca, adapted to coastal areas, have given good results. The male varieties did also: " M-38 ", " Peters T-41 " and " M-P3 ". At present, they have the main varieties of the world, except the Iranians. 45 masculine and 30 feminine varieties are preserved. They also have six species and interspecific hybrids (Pistacia atlantica, P. integerrima, P. khinjuk, P. palaestina, P. terebinthus and P. vera), of different origin.

Some varieties of pistachios

" Kerman"
Pistachio nut of great size and good quality. Selected in Iran, it was introduced in the U.S.A. and it is also cultivated in Spain (in Castilla-La Mancha) where the fruit ripens during the first fortnight of September.

" Peter"
It is used as a male cultivar with Kerman it has a good polen production and they partly coincide during the flowering period. Selected in California.

" Uzun"
Pistachio nut of average size, long and clear green. It is cultivated in Turkey.

" Kirmizi ‘
Pistachio nut of average size and reddish colour. Along with the cultivar Uzum, it is the most cultivated variety in Turkey.

" Abiad miwahi ‘
Pistachio nut of average size, white colour and excellent quality. Cultivated in Turkey.

" Achouri ‘
Pistachio nut of average size, red colour, excellent quality and very productive. Cultivated in Syria.

" Batouri ‘
Thick fruit of whitish colour and good quality. Important cultivar in Syria.

" Sefideh-Montaz" and " Imperiale de Dameghan"
The fruit of these varieties is round, thick and yellowish. Very appreciated in Iran.

" Kouchka ‘
Quite thick pistachio, cream white colour and good quality.

" Mateur"
Long fruit, average size, yellow greenish colour and good taste quality. It was selected in Tunis and it gives good results in Spain. In Castilla-La Mancha it ripens at the end of August.

" Larnaka ‘
Average size pistachio, less long than ‘Mateur ". Original from Cyprus. It is cultivated in Greece and in Spain, giving good results.

" Aegina ‘
Medium size fruit, long and similar to " Mateur ". It comes from Greece and it also gives good results in Spain.
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