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Witloof chicory, Cichorium intybus / Compositae
Witloof chicories have been traditionally improved by means of selections to obtain very uniform populations. According to Arguiñano, there are forced and non-forced varieties depending on the culture system, that is to say, whether they are forced with or without soil. The first ones are the most habitual. They bear leafy and swollen heads called hearts. In this group stand out "witloof", the Belgian or Brussels chicory, and Normato. Non-forced chicories need no whitening; they bear great heads that are harvested in autumn. The most important commercial varieties of this type are Sugar loaf and Crystal head.

On the other hand, the red chicory is a crossing between radicchio and chicory; its attractive reddish colour disappears when cooked. It must also be protected from light. Winter is the best time to find it in the market.

According to Maroto, the varieties can be hybrid and non-hybrid. Among the hybrids: "Zoom", "Bergere’, "Flambor", "Liber A.O’, "Liber V.O’, "Liber M.O’. "Liber L.O.", "Toner", "Jaz", "Flash", "Bea’, "Faro’, "Daliva’, "Arnova’, "Karvel", "Turbo’, "Rinof", etc.

Among the non-hybrid varieties we find 4 groups:

- Precocious: "’Wolfero Primo’, "Novimel", "Primosa’: The two first ones are forced with soil and " Primosa’ is a forced crop without soil.

- Semi-precocious: " Wolfero Secundo’, "Vianda’, "Secosa’.

- Mean cycle: "Wolfero Ternio’, "Terosa’.

- Late: "Wolfero Kwarto’, "Wolfero Kwinto’, "Norvita’, "Ivorine’, "Kwarosa’.
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