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Grape, Vitis vinifera / Vitaceae
Grape
There exist multiple varieties of grape, that can be classified according to their use in table grapes, for making raisins, must, for canning and those intended for obtaining wine. Within this last group are gathered the greater amount of varieties, since grapevine is mainly intended for wine production. At the same time, grapes are differentiated in red and white, according to the type of wine made with them.

Table grapes: these varieties are intended for fresh consumption. They bear large grapes, of uniform size and colour. The clusters are not compact, favouring their consumption. There are three types of table grapes: white, red and black. The best known white varieties are "Almería’, "Italia’, "Chasselas", etc. Some red varieties are "Cardinal", "Chasselas dorée’, "Emperor Queen" and " Moscatel roja’. Among the black varieties we find "Moscatel de Hamburgo’, "Alphonse Lavallé " and " Exotic".

Grapes for making raisins: these grapes must be of smooth texture and seedless, although there are some varieties with seeds. If they are intended for direct consumption they must be large, but if they have to be used in confectionery they preferred ones are the small. The main varieties intended for this use are "Sultanina’, "Corintia negra’, "Moscatel de Alejandría’ and " Dátil de Beirut".

Grapes for natural juice: these varieties must keep their natural taste and aroma after the treatment they are put under for their preservation. In general, the Vitis vinifera grapes do not satisfy these requirements; the most used are " Concord" and "Niágara’, belonging to Vitis labrusca.

Grapes for canning: they are seedless varieties that are put along with other fruits to make cocktails and fruit salads. The most appreciated variety is "Sultanina’.

Grapes for making wine: it is the main use for which grapevine is intended, so there are no end of suitable varieties for wine processing. These can be classified into black and white grapes, according to the colour of the wine. In Spain, among the black ones we find "Bobal", "Cabernet Sauvignon", "Embolicaire’, "Forcayat", "Garnacha’, "Tintorera’, "Merlot", "Monastrell", "Tempranillo’, "Pinot Noir", etc. Among the white varieties we have "Airén", "Chardonay", "Macabeo’, "Malvasía’, ‘Merseguera’, "Moscatel", "Plant nova’ and "Riesling".
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