www.interempresas.net
  Fruits Vegetables
es en ca
 
Mandarin, Citrus reticulata / Rutaceae
Mandarin
The origin of the mandarin is not very clear. Some authors doubt whether it comes from the Southeast of Asia or the southwest of China. The main producers are China, Spain and Japan. In Spain, the production is centered in the Mediterranean basin, specifically in the provinces of Valencia and Castellón.

The origin of the mandarin is not very clear. Some authors consider it native of the southwest of China, although others state that it comes from some countries of the Southeastern Asia, such as Laos or the Philippines. The truth is that it has been cultivated in China for millenia. From there it spread to the rest of the Southeast of Asia and in the Xth century it was already cultivated in Japan. The introduction of the mandarin in Europe took place thanks to the Englishman Abraham Hume, who imported two varieties of mandarin trees from China. Just a short time later some of these trees were sent to Italy and Malta.

The main producers are countries of the Mediterranean basin: Italy, Morocco, Spain; the United States, China and Japan, among others. The production is intended for the consumption in fresh, although it is also processed for syrups and jams. The world production is around 9,500,000 tons, being the European production 2,200,000 tons.

The following table shows the production figures of tangelos, mandarins, clementinas and satsumas. Tangelos are citruses that come from the cross between grapefruits and tangerines, and in some tropical countries they are highly consumed.

COUNTRY
PRODUCTION (thousand tons)   
 1989-91199619971998
China3,7675,8186,8887,218
Spain1,4561,5041,9691,737
Japan1,7491,1531,5531,553
Brazil649749749749
Iran423628684684
Republic of Korea599514649649
Morocco319332400462
Egypt232449435435
Argentina310253410410
Turkey357450365410


Source: FAO Production Yearbook (1998)

As it is shown, China is the main producer with a great difference over the rest; Spain is in the second position.

As far as exports are concerned, the 10 main mandarins, oranges and tangelos exporters are:


COUNTRY
EXPORTS 
 tons 1998thousand $ 1998
Spain2,455,5581,396,137
The United States663,623388,634
Morocco515,886249,561
South Africa496,000172,373
Greece330,208107,300
Egypt217,71660,822
The Netherlands208,891125,504
Turkey182,96678,949
Israel174,00084,049
Italy172,88581,904


(Export of Oranges, Mandarins and Tangelos)
Source: FAO Trade Yearbook, 1998.

The enormous difference between the Spanish export and the rest of the main exporting countries is shown. Spain exports almost 1,800,000 tons more than the second exporting country, the United States. The quantity of tons exported by Spain surpasses the total of tons exported by the United States, along with Morocco, South Africa, Greece, Egypt and The Netherlands.

Spain accounts for 80% of the European demand. In Spain the production is centered in the Mediterranean basin, given the good climatic conditions, that is to say, the absence of frosts, enough contrast between the heat in the morning and the cold at night in winter, the time of the year when mandarins mature. The alternate temperatures are very important for citruses to acquire good colouring, as it happens in the tropical zones. Castellón and Valencia stand out for the importance of their cultures, since they have most of the production.

In the following table we can see that almost half of the surface of mandarin tree production is centered in Valencia and that almost all the production of this fruit is located in the Mediterranean region.

PROVINCE
SURFACE (it has)
Valencia32,451
Castellón27,372
Alicante5,534
Tarragona2,121
Sevilla1,404
Málaga1,361
Murcia1,108
Huelva673
TOTAL (all Spain)73,287


Source: Anuario de Estadística Agraria 1989. Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación. Secretaría General Técnica.

The main import countries are Germany, France and tUnited Kingdom as it is shown in these two tables:

IMPORTS VALUE 1000 $ year 1999
 
Germany241,986
France235,913
United Kingdom172,574
The United States126,255
The Netherlands89,170
Canada82,493
Italy59,988
Poland51,768
Belgium - Luxembourg50,406
Sweden35,507


(Import of Tangerines, Mandarins, Clementinas and Satsumas)
Source: FAO Trade Yearbook, 1998.

IMPORTS AMOUNT (tons) year 1999
 
Germany318,899
France286,225
United Kingdom216,742
The Netherlands132,141
Poland121,375
The United States90,454
Canada84,106
Federation of Russia74,699
Italy73,296
Belgium-Luxembourg67,927


(Import of Tangerines, Mandarins, Clementinas and Satsumas)
Source: FAO Trade Yearbook, 1998.
Interempresas Media, S.L. / 2019 [ Legal notice | Política de Protección de Datos | Política de cookies | Publicidad]