Fruits Vegetables
es en ca
Apple, Malus domestica / Rosaceae
The apple varieties are classified in five groups according to their visual appearance: yellow, red, green, bicolour and Reinette.

Yellow apples are the prevailing in the French market.

The variety Golden Delicious is the queen of the yellow varieties. The group of red apples is formed by the family of Red Delicious, the original variety, that has given rise to multiple varieties. Granny Smith is the most representative variety of the group of green apples. It is of an intense and uniform green colour and the fruit, of average size, has a firm, juicy and slightly acid flesh.

Within the group of bicolour apples we classify all the varieties of more than one colour, except for Reinettes. In general, they are of a more or less dark red colour in one part of the fruit and yellow/green in the rest.

In the same way that the apple is a very important fruit, the quantity of varieties that exists is extremely high - some estimations, quoted by Pijpers ET al., 1986, indicate that there may be around 5,000 and 20,000 -, although it is reduced to a commercial level. In the producing countries there is usually a group of varieties of local interest. The varieties preferred at the moment are the bicolour apples.

The varieties of greater importance in international trade are those of the Delicious group (Red, Golden), Starking, Granny Smith and the recent new varieties Gala, Fuji, or Pink Lady, an Australian variety with registered genetic material and trade mark.

The varieties produced in Spain with greater marketing interest are Gallic Royal, Granny Smith, Golden Smoothee, Early Red One, Topred Delicious, Golden Delicious, Red Chief and Gray Reinette (R. from Canada).

In the United Kingdom, the varieties of greater importance at commercial level are, in alphabetic order, Bertane (French origin), Braeburn (French origin), Bramley (local and Irish origin), " chocolate apples’ (local origin), Cox (from Belgium, Holland and local origin), Gala (Belgium, France and Spain), Golden Delicious (Belgium and France), Granny Smith (France), Jonagold (Belgium), Jonagored (also Belgium), Laxton Superb (local), McIntosh Red (United States), Paula Reds (Canada and the United States), Pink Lady (South Africa and the United States), Red Chief (France and the United States), Red Delicious (France and the United States), Red Pippin (local), Royal Gala (France and local), Russet, Spartan, Toffee and Worcester Pearmain (the last four varieties all of local origin).

These varieties are gathered in the prices page of the United Kingdom wholesale markets, published in the issue of 13 October 2000 of the magazine Fresh Produce Journal; it refers, as indicated in all the cases, to this year’s harvest. The same study, carried out 6 months further on, would show a much clearer presence of fruit from the S hemisphere. At the moment, there is only one price for the South African Pink Lady.

As an example, the most important varieties imported to Sweden are Braeburn (coming from France), Elstar (mainly from Holland), Empire (the United States), Fuji (New Zealand, South America, the United States), Gala (France, Italy, Brazil, New Zealand), Golden Delicious (Europe, South Africa, the United States), Granny Smith (from many destinations: Europe, New Zealand, South America, South Africa and the United States), Ida Re, Jonagold and Jonagored are all of European origin, King David (Argentina and Chile), Red Delicious (Europe, the United States, South Africa, Argentina), Rome Beauty (Argentina), Royal Gala (New Zealand, South Africa, Europe, specially from France and Italy) and, finally, Winesap, red or black (from South America). In the campaign " Frukt & grönt varje gĺng du äter! (Fruit and vegetables in every meal!) the picture of these varieties is shown in the brochures of the imported varieties.

To carry on with Sweden, it is mentioned that each country has, more or less, its local varieties; some varieties are more restricted, due to given circumstance such as a better adaptation to the culture conditions or the taste of the inhabitants. They are usually varieties of short conservation, and therefore badly adapted to storage and/or long transport. These varieties of restricted culture go along with other varieties found in the international trade. The varieties cultivated in Sweden are Alice (available from September to October), Aroma (September to November), Bella de Boskoop (January to April) and Cox Orange (November to January), that are both cultivated in other countries, Discovery (September), Gloster (December to March), found in international interchanges, Gravensteiner, red and green, from September to December, Ingrid Marie (local, from October to February; imported from January to April), Katja (September to November), Kim (December to February), Lobo (October to November), Mutzu (December to March), Signe Tillisch (October and November), Summerred (September and October) and, finally, Akero (October to December). There is also an illustration of all these varieties in the corresponding brochure of the campaign mentioned above.

The future will bring changes in the varieties of the European markets. According to a research carried out by Prognosfruit, in Austria, published by the Argentine magazine Informe Frutihortícola of October 2000, there are three large groups of varieties:
- Varieties that will show an increasing importance: Fuji has an estimate increase of 23%, Braeburn (+18%), Gala (+ 13%), Granny Smith (+ 10%), Reinette (+9%), Annurca (+3%)
- Small decrease: Golden and Red Delicious (they both lower -1%), Idared (-2%), Morgenduft (-3%),
- Intermediate and large decrease: Jonagold (-7%), Elstar (-9%), Boskoop (-13%), Gloster (-16%), Bramley (-27%), Cox Orange (-29%). The greatest decrease will be that of Jonnathan, -43%.

The most important varieties are described below:

Bella de Boskoop
The skin’s colour varies from greenish-yellow to red. It is a large apple with a firm, acid, juicy pulp of a yellow colour. It is suitable to be consumed fresh and also for all types of processing. It is a variety of Dutch origin, available in the markets of the N Hemisphere from October until April.

Belleza de Roma
Also known as " Rome Beauty", " Morgenduft", " Imperatore’, " Hoary Morning", " Gillet"s Seedling" and " Rimskaya Krasvita’. They are large apples, of rounded shape and somewhat flattened, well-coloured, with red streaks and quite attractive appearance. The pulp is white, of refreshing acid taste. It is apt for fresh consumption and for cooking. The mutations " Gallia Beauty", " Carlson Red Rome’ and " Red Rome’, among others, are usually those having the most intense and uniform red tonalities. It is well-stored in cool store rooms. It is of late maturation. The areas with greater production are Argentina, Italy and the south of Germany.

Bramley"s Seedling
It is a large apple, slightly flattened and sometimes slightly asymmetric. It is green but it turns into yellow and it sometimes shows a reddish shade in the part where it has been exposed to the sun. It has a consistent and white flesh. The skin is quite thin. It has an acid taste and it is excellent for cooking. The name comes from the producer that developed this variety in the XIXth century. It is available in the North Hemisphere from October until April.

Cox"s Orange Pippin
It is one of the most popular varieties in the United Kingdom, Holland and Belgium. It was obtained in 1830 and it is of English origin. The fruit is red-stripped on a yellow and green background. It is rounded, very regular and of average size. It is very aromatic and it has a delicious taste.

Early Red One
Bright skin of an intense red colour, without streaks, all over the fruit, being a very attractive variety. Its meat is tender and firm; it has a sweet taste, although it is not very fragrant. Apart from its fresh consumption, it is widely used in cooking, roasted or stewed. In the N Hemisphere it is available from September until June.

It is a new variety obtained from the cross of " Golden Delicious" with some other varieties. It is a large apple of regular shape. It is golden yellow with a shade of reddish colour. The pulp is fleshy and crispy with a very pleasant characteristic fragrance. It is not very appropriate for processing. In the N Hemisphere markets it is available from November until mid April.

Golden Delicious
This variety is known from the beginning of the last century. It was first cultivated from a seed in the United States at the end of the XIXth century. It is also known as Golden, Golden Smoothee, Golden 972 and Golden B.

The skin has a uniform greenish yellow colour; the part of the fruit that has been exposed to the sun shows some reddish tones. The lenticels are usually well-marked and they may be rough in some cases. It has a rounded and regular shape and a crispy, slightly juicy flesh, quite sweet, slightly acid and aromatic.

It is consumed fresh or in juice and it is also used in confectionery for its slight acidity; however, it is less acid than Granny Smith. It is not suitable for purees, but it gives good results in cakes.

In Spain, the period when Golden Delicious of local origin is available in the market is from September and August, in the N Hemisphere.

Golden Smoothee
It has a very thin and bright skin. According to the stage of maturation, the colour ranges from green to yellow. It has a crispy, juicy, sweet and aromatic pulp. It is suitable for fresh consumption, for juice, fruit salads and cakes. In the North Hemisphere it is practically sold all the year round, from September until August.

Golden Supreme
It is known as the " early Golden". It is an attractive apple, of green skin with pink tonalities in one of its sides. It has globose shape and crispy, fleshy meat, with a slightly acid taste and scarcely aromatic. It is suitable for fresh consumption and found in the market from August until November

Gloster 69
This is a variety of German origin, obtained from the cross between ‘Glockenapfel’ and ‘Red Delicious’. Gloster is a relatively large and elongate apple. Its colour ranges from purple red to dark red. The pulp is distinguished by its greenish white colour, its slightly acid taste and its firmness. It is recommended only for fresh consumption. In the N. Hemisphere it is available from November until March.

Granny Smith
These apples are completely green, although they show some white clear lenticels. They have a white, very crispy, juicy and firm flesh with a pleasant and slightly acid taste. They are rounded-shaped, ideal for fresh consumption.

These fruits have a red uniform colour, although they sometimes show traces of yellow. Their pulp, of a cream colour, is firm, juicy and slightly acid. This variety is the result of the cross between Jonathan and Wagenerappel. In the N. Hemisphere it is available from October until July.

It is a very large apple. The yellow background colour is dyed with shades of red. The pulp is of a yellow whitish colour, with a pleasant sweet taste. It is the result of a cross between ‘Jonathan’ and ‘Golden Delicious’. It is both suitable for fresh consumption and processing. It is available between October and April in the N. Hemisphere.

It is rounded-shaped and of a red uniform colour. The meat is white and tasteful. It is suitable for salads, cakes and jams since its flesh does not oxidize as much as that of other varieties. It is also recommended for people with delicate or false teeth, because of its fragile skin and its soft flesh. It is original from Canada.

Red Chief
This is a variety of intense red colour, although not uniform, and bright skin. It has an elongate shape with strongly marked lobes. It is hardly aromatic but of sweet, tender and firm flesh. It is consumed fresh, stewed, cooked and roasted. It is available in the markets in September and it is sold, keeping all its quality, until June.

Red Delicious
The colour of its skin is a smooth dark red, although it sometimes has streaks on a yellow background. It has a somewhat elongate shape. The pulp is of a white, smooth and uniform colour, although it softens very fast. It has a bad conservation. This variety is native to America and it is widely cultivated in Europe, mainly in France and Italy. The United States is also one of the main producers. It is also known as ‘Starkrimson’ and ‘Richared’. It is available all the year round.

Royal Gala
This variety has a bright skin with red-orange streaks on a yellowish green background. Although it is very irregular, it has a conical shape. Its white, tender, crispy and firm flesh is aromatic and has an excellent taste. It is ideal for fresh consumption. It is harvested from the end of August until the end of December.

These apples have a bright skin of yellowish green colour with red streaks. The white, tender and firm has a smooth sweet taste. They are consumed in various ways: fresh, cooked, roasted or stewed. In the N. Hemisphere, they are available from September, their harvesting period, until June. It is an American variety that is also widely cultivated in Europe and available practically all the year round.

Is a large, elongate apple of intense red colour when it has enough hours of sunshine. Its firm and aromatic pulp is of a white colour. It is recommended for fresh consumption. It is marketed from September until mid October. It is a cross between ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘McIntosh’.

Grey Reinette
‘Grey Reinette’ is distinguished for its grey golden, hard and rough skin. It has an irregular, strongly flattened shape, with a very short peduncle. Its fragrant and firm flesh has a marked acid taste. It is frequently used for confectionery and it is ideal for cooking. It is marketed from September until March.

Topred Delicious
Of red streaked, bright coloured skin. Its conical shape shows some prominent lobes. The tender and firm flesh may loose its texture after some time, although it always keeps a pleasant sweet taste. It is eaten raw, cooked, stewed or roasted, and it is sold from September, when it is harvested, until June.
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