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Hazelnut, Corylus avellana / Corylacea (Betulaceae)
In Spain, the Designation of Origin or Origin name ‘Hazelnut of Reus’is well-known, including varieties such as Negret, Pauetet, Gironell, Morell and Culplá.

There are three groups belonging to different subspecies according to their shape, volume and shell hardness.

In North America three native species are known: Corylus Americana, C. cornuta and C. Californica. As far as common names, different hazelnut varieties are known, being the Filbert hazelnut the most cultivated one in the United States; the Constantinopla hazelnut, obtained from the Turkish hazel, from the Southeastern Europe and Asia Minor. In Spain, the hazelnut with Designation of Origin’Hazelnut of Reus’is very well-known. It comes from several Catalan regions near the area of Reus. Under this denomination traditional varieties are included, such as Negret , Pauetet, Gironell, Morell and Culplá.

The main variety in Spain is Negret , although the plantations of ‘Pauetet’and the Italian ‘Tonda de Giffoni’have increased lately. In some areas of northern Spain, such as Navarra, the American variety Ennis is also produced. In other Spanish areas, the varieties Amandi, Casina, Grande, Espinaredo and Quirós in Asturias, Segorbe in Castellón, and Común de Alava in the Basque Country.

Varieties can be gathered in three groups, belonging to the three following subspecies:

- Corylus avellana racemosa Lam.: Hazelnuts grouped in clusters, round and very voluminous, often netted. ‘Santa Maria de Jesús", ‘San Juan", ‘San Nicolás", and ‘San Cono’.

- Corylus avellana glandulosa Lin.: Hazelnut with acorn shape, variable size, with a cone shape of narrower base and acuminate apex. Not very hard shell. ‘Ghiannusa, ‘Cannellina, ‘Minnulara, ‘Panuttara, Baccilara, ‘Muddisi, ‘Piattiddara, common hazel, ordinary hazel, hazel of Spain, etc.

- Corylus avellana Máxima Lam.: Spheric or round shape, bulky or medium fruit, hard shell. Commonly known as Napolitano hazel. ‘Badara ubertosa, ‘Cerro, ‘Pigra, ‘Privitera, ‘Balzanotto, ‘San Giorgio, ‘Reganati, ‘Rizo, ‘San Elmo, hazel of England, netted hazel, etc.

Descriptions of hazelnut varieties

‘Negret’
Fruit of small size, in groups of 3 or 4, with a hard shell. Not very vigorous tree, with facility to sprout by the root. Great productivity, early fructification. It is an old variety originating in Spain and protected by the Designation of Origin ‘Hazelnut of Reus".

‘Fertil de Coutard’
Fruit of big size, in groups of 2 or 3, with a thick shell. Vigorous tree, easy to form in bush and stem. Marked tendency to sprout by the root. Very good productivity, fast fructification and very delayed ripening at the end of September. It is an old French variety.

‘Ennis’
Fruit of very thick size, often isolated, with a slightly thick shell. Middle to weak vigour and tendency to sprout, that is to say, to yield shoots or new sprouts by the root. Good or very good productivity, fast fructification and late ripening at the end of September. Original from the U.S.A.

‘Tonda di Giffoni ‘
Quite big fruit with a thick shell. Vigorous tree that sprouts by the root. Quite high productivity, precocious fruition and very late ripening. It is a very old variety of Italian origin.
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