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Mango, Magnifera indica / Anacardiaceae
The cultivars of mango are classified in 3 main groups:

- Indian cultivars: They have a remarkable taste of turpentine. The length of the fibres and the colour of the rind are quite variable; some of them have red skin. The great majority are sweet, with a low content in acid.

- Indochinese and Filipino cultivars: They are extremely sweet, without fibre nor taste of turpentine. The epidermis is yellowish-green. Carabao is the most important cultivar of the Philippines, and it is exported in considerable amounts to Japan. Under the synonymous of Manila, it is one of the most important varieties of Mexico.

- Florida cultivars: Haden was grown in Florida as a seed plant from Mulgoba in 1910. The following characteristics have rendered it very popular in the international trade: attractive red colour of the rind, highly resistant, a very important characteristic for long distance transport, and a relatively high acid content. Since 1940, a group of cultivars with similar characteristics to Haden have been bred in Florida. Some of them are "Tommy Atkins ", "Zill", "Torbet", "Kensington", "Irwi’, "Haden Glen", "Lippens", "Van Dyke". "Sensation", "Osteen", "Keitt". The order of maturation in Florida is practically the same one in different culture areas. The period of maturation for all the mango cultivars in an area is approximately 3 months. Below are described some of the cultivars:

"Haden Glen": From the Hindu variety "Mulgoba’, by natural cross in Florida. Fruit of medium to large size, up to 14 cm long and 680 g of weight. Ovoid or round shape, with a lively yellow colour, purple spots and multiple white lenticels. Rounded base, peduncle inserted in the central region, rounded apex, compressed tip, thick, even and firm rind, easily removed from the pulp. Firm pulp, with few thin fibres, mainly around the stone, of a yellow-orange colour. Oblong stone, provided with many fibres and 7 outstanding veins in cross-sectional position to the axis. Monoembryonic seed .

"Irwin": From a seed of the variety "Lippens" grown in Miami in 1939. Fruit of ovoid shape, slightly tapering to the sides. Medium to small size, its weight ranges between 225 and 340 g, although it can reach 450 g. It is of a pale red colour with dark red spots. The lenticels are small and white. The pulp has a small amount of fibre, with a smooth and sweet taste, moderately aromatic, of excellent quality.

"Tommy Atkins": From a seed of unknown ancestors in Florida (USA) in 1922. Fruit of medium to large size, between 450 and 710 g, ovoid but slightly oblong shape, rounded base; the peduncle is inserted obliquely in a narrow cavity, small lateral tip, large and rounded end. Yellow-orange colour with pale to dark red spots, with a brown purple spot on the side exposed to the sun. Long and slightly bent seed with long and fine fibres. Extremely tall tree and strong branches. The fruit is grouped in great clusters.

"Zill": Coming from a plant of a seed of " Haden", grown in Florida in 1922. Heart-shaped fruit, slightly tapering to the sides, small, weight around 250-300 g, reddish-pink colour on a yellow background. Rounded base, peduncle inserted slightly oblique, the rind is not easily removed from the pale yellow pulp, it is firm, free from fibres, with a slight taste of trementina. The seed is small, with a small strip of small and thin fibres in the ventral region. Vigorous tree of open crown.

"Keitt": From a seed of " Brooks" grown in Miami in 1939. Fruit of ovoid shape, medium to large size, between 650 and 450 g, around 112 and 118 mm long, rounded base; the peduncle is inserted slightly oblique, yellow with red spot, very attractive, the rind is not easily removed from the pulp, of yellow colour. Without fibres, except in the part near the seed. Small, monoembryonic seed.

"Sensation": From a seed of unknown origin, grown in Miami. Fruit of medium to small size, around 105 mm long, 280 g to 340 g of weight, although some of them may weigh 500 g. Ovoid shape, dark yellow colour with reddish spots, multiple small yellow lenticels. Small, monoembryonic seed.

"Lippens": From a seed of " Haden" bred in 1931 in Florida. Fruit of medium to large size, 11-12 cm long and between 340 and 550 g of weight. Without fibre, of oval shape, slightly flat-topped, of a dark yellow colour, with a bright reddish side, few yellow lenticels.

"Van Dyke’: Bred in 1940 in Florida, good output, moderate resistance to anthracnose. Extremely red and attractive fruit, pulp of optimal quality, without fibre, and showing a defect: the small size of the fruit, that ranges between 280 and 400 g.

At present, research is carried out on the development of new varieties of mango like " Nomi’, " Tango’, " Shelly", etc. These cultivars are better adapted to the conditions of each production area where they have been bred.

The most outstanding varieties from which the most important cultivars have been bred are the following:
"Mulgoba’: Fruit of medium size, oval-globose shape, 9-12 cm long and 7-9 cm wide. Of a dark yellow colour, sometimes red in the apex and close to the peduncle, with superficial spots of small size and pale yellow colour. The rind is thick, strong and firm. The flesh, of a yellow-orange colour, is smooth, without fibre, of pleasant smell and taste, but a little pungent. Long seeds. It is an excellent variety for dry climate; it is grown in Florida, and it has also been tested in Israel and the Canary Islands.

"Amini’: Of small size and kidney shape. Its weight oscillates between 170-200 g, and the measure is between 7-9 cm long and 7-8 cm wide. Of yellowish-green colour, scarlet in the base, with pale yellow spots; the rind is thick and even. The pulp is of excellent quality, without fibre, pale reddish colour and extremely juicy. Slender or oval seed. It is cultivated in the Canary Islands too.

"Pairi’: Of regular size, oval shape, 200-300 g of weight; 7-9 cm long and 7-8 cm wide. Green-yellowish colour, scarlet in the base, with small whitish-yellow spots. Rind of average thickness. Yellow-orange pulp, compact, juicy, without fibre, sweet and with a rich smell. Thick seed. Native to Florida, it is grown in the Canary Islands, Israel and Hawaii.

"Camboyana’: Regular size, elongate shape, 10-12 cm long and 6-7 cm wide. Yellow-green colour with very few spots. Soft and thin rind. Pulp of good quality, free from fibre, of intense yellow colour, extremely juicy; aromatic, slightly acid taste. It is widely cultivated in Cambodia, from where it is original.

"Sansersha’: Of large size, weighing between 500 g and one kilo, pear-shaped, 17-22 cm long and 9-11 cm wide. Dark yellow colour, slightly reddish, with multiple small spots of greyish-yellow colour. It is an excellent fruit for preserves. not to be consumed in fresh; its pulp ifleshy, usually juicy, free from fibre and somewhat acid. The seed is slightly curved and thin.
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