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Mango, Magnifera indica / Anacardiaceae
Mangoes is native to the indomyanmarian area, probably cultivated by humans for more than 4000 years. India, where there are still wild mango forests, is the chief culture area of this plant. Mangoes have spread almost over all the tropical areas: towards the South and Southeast of Asia, Australia, Madagascar, East of Africa, Brazil and Central America. It also grows in subtropical areas of favourable climate like Florida, South Africa, Israel, Cyprus and Egypt.

As regard to the subtropics, this crop was probably introduced in the south of Africa in the XVIth century B.C., but it did not arrive at the Canary Islands and Madeira until the second half of the XVIIIth century and at the U.S.A. (Florida and Hawaii), Australia and Israel until the XIXth century.

This fruit arrived at America by means of the Portuguese, who introduced it in Brazil in the XVIIIth century. They also introduced it in western Africa. The Spaniards, on the other hand, contributed in the expansion of mangoes all over America, because they transported small producing trees from the Philippines to Mexico. Their introduction in Southern Spain might have not taken place until the XXth century. On the other hand, the obtaining in 1910 in Florida of the excellent cultivar " Haden" marked the beginning of the modern development of this crop.

Mangoes are the third tropical fruit in terms of production and import at a world-wide level, immediately after the banana and the tropical pineapple; it is located in the fifth place among the rest of fruits.

The FAO data from 2000 indicate that the world-wide production amounted to 24,975,204 t and were distributed by continents in the following way:

ContinentTons
Africa2,172,186
Asia19,544,494
EuropeNo production
North and Central America2,086,478
Oceania44,908
South America1,127,138
Total24,975,204

Source: FAOSTAT Database Results (2000) ( http://www.fao.org )

In 1998 the world-wide production amounted to 23,455,000 t (during 2000 the production increased) and was distributed in the following way:

ContinentTons
Africa1,944,000
Asia18,536,000
EuropeNo data
North America and Central America2,040,000
Oceania43,000
South America891,000
Total23,455,000

Source: FAO Production Yearbook (1998)

As shown in the table, the main producer is Asia with 78% of the total world-wide output, followed by Africa and America.

The main producer in 2000 was India (12,000,000 t), followed by China, Mexico, Thailand and Pakistan. The ten chief producers of mango are shown below:

CountryTons
India12,000,000
China2,936,522
Mexico1,529,307
Thailand1,350,000
Pakistan937,705
The Philippines931,5000
Indonesia801,777
Nigeria729,000
Brazil605,000
Egypt232,000

Source: FAOSTAT Database Results (2000) ( http://www.fao.org )

The world-wide imports amounted to 547,966 tons according to the FAO data from 1999. The main import countries are in the first place the United States of America, the Netherlands and the Arab Emirates. The ten first world-wide importers are included in the following table:

Country;;Tons
The United States of America219,144
The Netherlands63,398
United Arab Emirates38,000
China33,057
France30,559
Malaysia25,422
Germany23,871
United Kingdom22,615
Saudi Arabia14,295
Singapore14,041

Source: FAOSTAT Database Results (1999) ( http://www.fao.org )

In 1999 Spain imported six thousand three hundred and eighty two tons, which situates it in the 14th place in the world-wide imports.

The economic value of the imports in 1999 amounted to 483,614 thousand dollars. The United States of America was the country with greater capital investment in imports, followed by the Netherlands and China. The following table shows the ten first countries with greater capital investment in imports.

CountryThousand dollars
The United States of America161,629
The Netherlands66,179
China34,752
France32,328
Germany27,392
United Kingdom25,728
United Arab Emirates19,000
Saudi Arabia15,583
Portugal12,079
Belgium-Luxembourg11,837

Source: FAOSTAT Database Results (1999) ( http://www.fao.org )

Spain occupies the 12th place with 6,781 thousand dollars in imports.

576,413 tons of mangoes are exported World-wide according to the FAO data from 1999. The main exporting countries are in the first place Mexico, Brazil and India. The ten first world-wide exporters are shown in the following table:

CountryTons
Mexico204,002
Brazil53,765
India47,149
Pakistan37,971
The Netherlands37,034
The Philippines35,102
Peru20,026
Ecuador15,668
South Africa12,341

France
11,114

Source: FAOSTAT Database Results (1999) ( http://www.fao.org )

Spain exported in 1999 four thousand six hundred and thirty seven tons which places it in the 18th position of the world-wide exports.

The world-wide exports in 1999 amounted to 381,744 thousand dollars. The table below includes the ten first countries with greater capital investment intended for exports.

CountryThousand dollars
Mexico123,284
The Netherlands41,589
The Philippines32,340
Brazil32,011
Peru23,419
India20,004
France13,600
Belgium-Luxembourg8,423
Pakistan7,519
Israel7,269

Source: FAOSTAT Database Results (1999) ( http://www.fao.org )

Spain destined 5,579 thousand dollars in exports occupying the 12th place.

According to Gallant Elder, in 1997 the production of mango in Spain amounted to 4,000 tons; in 1998 the total surface dedicated to this crop was 1,000 ha. The production of mango in Spain is centred in the Canary Islands and the Southeast of the Peninsula, specially the area of Malaga. However, the FAO has no data with regard to this production.
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