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Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus / Agaricaceae
Mushroom
The varieties of mushroom are white, cream or brownish. The most common species cultivated is Agaricus bisporus.

Within the genus Agaricus, the species A. bisporus is the most cultivated, and it is commonly known as mushroom. Other species cultivated are A. bitorquis, usually planted in summer, unlike A. bisporus, which is a winter species. In some countries like the United Kingdom the most appreciated species are A. campestris and A. silvaticus, wilder species, which are thought to have better organoleptic characteristics than A. bisporus.

Besides, the species A. arvensis, A. essettei and A. macrosporus are also known.

Within the species of common mushroom we distinguish three types, according to the colour, which can be white, cream or brown.

Some varieties of mushroom

"Agaricus bisporus"
It is the most widely cultivated mushroom in Spain, also known as Paris mushroom and ‘Hongo de Cepa’. It has a thick, hard and white flesh, although slightly reddish when the young specimens are outdoors, and brownish in the case of adults. There are mainly two types distinguished, the brown one, chiefly intended for immediate consumption and the white one, which is better adapted to storage.

"Agaricus campestris"
Hard, frim and white flesh, although it turns into a pinkish colour when cut. There are many varieties known of this mushroom. The botanical variety ‘squamulosus’ is distinguished by its characteristic scales, quite separated and brown.

"Agaricus arvensis"
It is known like "Bola de Nieve’. Thick and hard flesh, white with a slight tendency to turn into an ochre tone, specially the stem.

Among the related species we find A. sylvicola, A. essettei and A. macrocarpus; all of them edible.
The only toxic white variety is A. xanthoderma, which is thinner and larger, yellowish on the base of the stem and with a strong and unpleasant carbolic smell where the skin becomes discoloured and yellowish.

"Agaricus essettei’
Also known as " Fir mushroom’. The flesh is hard at the beginning, more tender afterwards, and white, although it may turn into a reddish colour when cut.

Although it is distinguished by its aniseed smell and the type of development, it is sometimes mistaken with A. sylvicola, A. tenuivolvatus, A. macrocarpus and other edible varieties.

"Agaricus sylvicola’
Also known as " Aniseed mushroom’, it has a hard flesh and a white and pink stem.

"Agaricus macrosporus"
Known as " Cow Fungus ‘, it has a thick and turgescent flesh, white, although it turns into a reddish ochre tonality, mainly towards the base of the stem. It is the species of greater size among mushrooms. The size of the cap is around 25-30cm.
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